Case Study Report
Obrtničko učilište OU (Craft College)
Development of case study
Place and Date: The interview was held at Obrtničko učilište, Ilica 49, Zagreb on Wednesday, 21 August 2019 at 8.30 am. The interviewer was Monika Holjevac.
The selection was based on the requirement of previously set criteria – minimal number of interviews: 2 teachers, 1 manager, 1 supportive non-educational staff.
The people who were interviewed are:
- The manager/director
- A non-educational staff/project manager
- A teacher/staff
- a teacher
- a teacher/project manager
People who were selected have had already some experience in dealing with diversity, sometimes even on daily basis. Also, they have experience in working with migrants and other marginalised groups.
Description of the organisation
Craft College (Obrtničko učilište/OU), founded in 2006, is an institution for adult education located in the City of Zagreb. It was founded by Croatian Chamber of Trades and Crafts (HOK), Chamber of Trades and Crafts Zagreb (OKZ) and Association of Craftsmen Zagreb (UOZG), with a goal of linking the needs of trades and labour market and adjusting educational programmes to European standards. Tasks of Craft College are: linking vocational education with economy and regional development, establishing a network system with companies and other educational institutions, taking an advisory role for education institutions and companies in the region, encouraging innovations in craft, offering consultancy services and information for students and parents, future participants in the crafts educational process and European cooperation.
Mission statement showing openness: Craft College is open for cooperation and organizes training courses, seminars and specialised courses for areas craftsmen are showing interest in, or for the fields that labour market currently focuses on. The full mission statement can be found here: https://www.obrtnicko-uciliste.hr/mission-en
Craft College is one of the leading institutions for adult education in field of craft and entrepreneurship in Croatia, with local, regional, national and international effect.
Educational service is based on quality of content, student and experience-oriented programmes and transversal skills.
Craft College cooperates with different partners (non-governmental sector, institutions -mainstream and adult education, regional and local self-government units, business support institutions, Croatian Employment Service, etc.). Activities and cooperation contribute to the development of a common education system that provides open access, new educational opportunities, as well as transitions between educational fields.
- to become recognisable for achievements, verified programmes, resources and contribution to craft, entrepreneurship and sustainable development
- fostering international mobility (students, craftsmen)
- to become an incubator of ideas
- dissemination of good practice
- continuous improvement of the teaching processes
- to empower personnel through cooperation with many external experts providing courses, continuous education and training of employees and linking to various craft institutions
- quality controlling and continuous growth, information sharing – valuation and self-valuation systems
- fostering socially responsible and sustainable development
- to achieve desired improvements and minimise risks.
Due to wide range of activities, OU has introduced the quality system ISO9001:2015 which is the proof of continuous development and the goal to become one of the most relevant adult education institutions in Croatia.
Our motivation: student’s satisfaction, further development and better results to ensure that Craft College will be one the best educational institutions in Europe.
Craft College (Obrtničko učilište/OU) is an adult education institution founded by Croatian Chamber of Trades and Crafts (HOK), Chamber of Trades and Crafts Zagreb (OKZ) and Association of Craftsmen Zagreb (UOZG).
Craft College has 6 departments:
- the Principal office (Principal, Administrative secretary)
- the Education department (Head of Department / Head of Adult Education, Expert associate for administration in adult education, Expert associate for the economic group of subjects, Expert Associate for the mechanical engineering group of subjects)
- the Development, quality and IT department (Head of Department, Expert associate)
- the Project department (Head of Department / Project coordinator, Expert associate for projects)
- the International cooperation department (Head of Department, Expert associate)
- the Crafts department (Head of Department, Expert associate)
Institutional in the migrant society
There is a focus on migrants and refugees present in the institution through cooperation with other institutions dealing with migrant integration into society and involving them into education to obtain necessary skills and knowledge to be able to participate on the job market or at the certain workplace. In this case, the institution, in cooperation with Jesuit Refugee Service, conducted training in 2018 for asylum seekers with the aim of putting them to work for the known employer.
There is a second group of migrants who attend Croatian language course in the institution at the moment (September 2019). It is the result of the cooperation with Croatian Employment Service (CES).
Human Resource Management
The Crafts College (OU) employ 13 persons and has more than 100 associate professionals in teaching fields.
Diversity can be noticed among employees already. The age span of employees is between 21-59 years. Some employees come from urban area of the capital city and some come from coastal part and rural part of Croatia. The education structure also shows variety: there are employees with different educational background, i.e. there are different professions present: engineering studies (mechanical engineering), economy, public administration, philology (language studies), translation, educationbased studies (teaching), IT, mining and geology, musical studies, etc. One employee has Palestine origin. Multilingualism is present in the institution – employees speak English, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Slovak, Slovenian language at different levels – some more and other less fluently. The level of knowledge and the approach to work is also different by every employee. Some employees wear piercing and have tattoos which are accepted as a unique characteristic of the person. There is attention for diversity present in the institution. Sometimes, the staff is not aware of diversity because they often consider all the diversities as “normal”. In other words, the opportunity is given to all kinds of different people whether it is in the working area (people who are working together, colleagues) or in the education (students).
Considering migrant students, they have more individual approach and the staff needs to deal with them by completely adapting to each participant because they also have diversities between them (country where they come from, religion, strictly religious, less strict about religion, education background, age, etc.).
The organisation has valuable contacts with migrant organisations in its region. It cooperated with associations like: Are you Syrious, Red Cross and Jesuit Refugee Service. In cooperation with JRS the organisation has had a fruitful cooperation – we conducted the education process for migrants. The students (migrants) have obtained certification for occupations they attended after successfully passing the exam.
At the moment, the organisation has a group of migrants attending language course in order to prepare them for the labour market – cooperation with CES (Croatian Employment Service).
The migrants who were the students at the organisation were treated in a way to provide them all the necessary help and support to be able to finish the education process they attended.
Special support was provided in a way that migrants were treated with individual approach in order to be able to adopt the necessary knowledge to obtain the certificate. The individual support needed from the teacher to be fully able to adapt to each person in the migrant group, regardless of the country they come from, religion, culture, age or educational background which were all quite diverse. The teacher needed to implement some special methods of giving lectures which were shaped for migrants to be able to understand them.
Educational staff has many categories of diversity considering their age, profession, knowledge, approach to work and working with diverse education groups. Some teachers were not so keen to adopt 115 working with migrants. In other words, they lack the ability to adapt their courses to migrants, specifically by speaking too fast which is not suitable for them since their knowledge of language is not at such level.
On the other hand, younger teachers had more empathy and customized their courses in a way that they spoke slower, used Arabic translations of some words and even draw some words and terms to bring their meaning closer to the migrant group of students. Also, those teachers were on disposal for any issue that the migrant student group might have encountered during their study process.
Personal Impressions of interviewed people
|Through dealing with diversities occurs growth, person arises as a teacher/person
Every new group is a new challenge for the teacher
Personal growth and development
|Higher stress for teacher/ educational staff/
Higher workload for teacher/educational staff/staff
Higher, additional effort
Inability to adjust
Inability to go “out of the frame”
Lack of interest (teachers)
Commitment with mission statement and diversity policy
Interviewed members of the staff are fully committed to the mission statement and diversity policy (which is existing, but not formally) of the organisation. The diversity policy is more a set of the rules which are normal behaviour of the employees. It is not written in form of a document, but it is a part of company usual behaviour during the contact and working with students or colleagues.
The institution is open for cooperation in many different fields. That can also be seen through the EU project we conducted. EU funded projects brought to our institution many partners from many different countries what also implied diverse experiences and exchange of practices.
What should be changed?
Bureaucracy – there is too much bureaucracy, the paperwork needs to be faster in order to spare time and make administration process easier both for the administration staff and participants (students)
What should not be changed?
The overall awareness of the staff regarding diversities
Positive attitude towards diverse groups
Willingness to include every interested person in education process regardless of her/his cultural background or other characteristics
The language regarding diversity within the organisation
The organisation does not speak the language of learners (migrants). For reaching out to these groups, an oral, personal approach is used through the organisations that work with them (JRS, CES).
When students (migrants) come to our organisation for the first time, it is always with the presence of an interpreter who is with them on the first day (orientation) for the purpose of reducing the verbal interpretation of the messages.
It is also often the case that on the first day students must signed documentation (for example for the purposes of ESF projects) containing after the general information questions (name, surname, address, PIN, education level, gender – still only male and female, labour market status…) a section called special category of data (Person with disability, Belonging to a national minority, Person of foreign origin, Migrant). Teachers and administrative staff are very often in trouble explaining how we really want them to be integrated and that we are happy to educate them (formal and informal) but still they need to fill in the box that classifies them in certain “frames”.
In order to avoid these first obstacles, we emphasize the problems we have with bureaucracy in a humourless way or let them know that such projects are intended exclusively for them (to reduce their sense of constant separation) in order to easily integrate into society. Administration in this part of verbal and non-verbal communication has the greatest challenges in terms of diversity. They are the first line and the first impression that participants make about the organisation. The challenges are reflected in the longer time required to fill out the documentation (applications, contracts), constant repetition of the same information (selective listening), the noise in communication channel, illiteracy, incomplete information in documents they fill out… which is attempted to be corrected by the presence of a translator, and non-verbal communication that is the same throughout the organisation (openness, acceptance and understanding).
Although there are no written internal guidelines promoting equal opportunities and equal treatment, they are more of an “organisation culture” and a common way of behaving for employees and leadership. Other guidance is provided verbally, teachers share experiences with the trainees to better prepare for specific groups and their requirements.
Significant differences in the way people are looking at and thinking about the diversity in the institution
Leadership is more focused on diversity within the organisation itself, while teachers and administration focus more on issues of diversity in terms of learners. This was more pronounced in the group interview where respondents more “justified” their work than they really wondered about all the spheres of diversity surrounding them. In terms of working with diversity (e.g. migrants) management has a hierarchy of “paths of diversity” to our organisation – first policy, then organisations (JRS, Red Cross) and then OU self. The leadership looks at differences (in terms of working with migrants) structured from the moment they enter the country until they become our trainees. However, staff members think more about how they will work/teach them when they come. They are more driven by relationships within the organisation that reflect on working with diversity in a positive way.
People within the organisation at all levels are aware that diversity is a characteristic of adult education and believe that groups of students are becoming increasingly diverse and multicultural and that people within the organisation must constantly develop multicultural perspectives at all levels of the organisation.
Perspective of personal identity and relationship
In general, cooperative behavioural and social cooperation is present in OU. It does not exclude the motivation of individuals and individual identities, but rather that they are transformed from the personal to the group level. It is noticeable that employees at all levels of the organisation are characteristically well known, respected and accordingly trusted and tolerated by each other. Closely related to the view and logics within the organisation, there are no divisions between “us” and “them” in a hierarchical sense. It is evident that both men and women perform the same tasks, have the same job positions (for which they are equally paid), have the same roles, and are comfortable with the same behaviours. The interview participants are, of course, aware of their roles and status within the organisation, but because of their interconnectedness and ultimate common goals, the impression is that they think about themselves in the term of group membership. Similarly, they are equally open in the organisation to relationships with colleagues and trainees. I conclude that this is, on the one hand, a reflection of the organisation’s management, however the fact that the organisation is in daily contact with diversity plays also an important role. These relate not only to ethnicity and cultural background which is the theme of this project but also include other dimensions of diversity such as sexual, intellectual, age, socio-economic background, geographical differences, linguistic, literacy, difficulties and disability. Cultural background data is not recorded within organisation (neither for employees, associates or students) but it is considered in the terms of uniqueness of personal identity. For this reason, employees and management of the organisation are accustomed to forming impressions of people not only at a public level (the visible or early surface issues), but also to interact with others moving to relationship building and self-disclosure interaction; and eventually to deeper areas in exploring their personality.
Arrangements and power relations
In OU diversity can be noticed among employees already. But, sometimes, the staff are not aware of the diversity because they often consider all the diversities as “normal”. In other words, the opportunity is given to all kinds of different people whether it is in the working area (people who are working together, colleagues) or in education (students).
The leadership of the organisation is therefore focused on making people work together because of their differences. More specifically, it attempts to manage diversity in a way that directs people within an organisation with different perspectives and identities to work well together despite their differences. This also fosters the ability to collaborate and learn from different stakeholders, including employees, customers, partners and communities. They use what they learn to explore how they can perform their organisation’s work more efficiently.
The organisation has a highly positive attitude towards cooperation and networking, which proves participation in numerous projects aimed primarily at marginalized groups (unemployed, PWDs, migrants, young people, the elderly) and in projects aimed at improving or enhancing competencies. In this regard, the organisation participates with various partners from country and abroad. The organisation participates in the employment of migrants through their education, preparation for the market and the world of work. Through the CES and migrant organisations, in cooperation with employers, migrants find employment. By adopting multiple viewpoints, the organisation gains a more complete and realistic understanding of the market, customers and employees.
It is evident that the flow of information within OU is transparent and free. Employees at different workplaces during the interviews were handling information about the organisation’s plans and 118 strategies directed from their positions upward and vice versa, with clear indications of the time component and priorities.
OU equally engages employees and managers, reduces micro-management and other restrictive approaches, and promotes organisational and individual success. OU is a horizontal organisation that creates an environment of genuine collaboration, respect and openness. It gives everyone more freedom to express unconventional ideas or to work on issues that are prevented in organisational goals even though everyone is aware of them; including those talking about diversity.
Motives and motivations to work on diversity policy in the organisation
Leadership and management, in terms of diversity, see money as the primary motive. It is reflected in the use of projects in education (both formal and non-formal) in the field of diversity, whether it involves people within the organisation, associates or trainees.
In an organisational framework, diversity therefore refers to the “making use of and leveraging human differences by organisational efficiency and productive business goals” that maintain a high-performing workforce.
The main interests and motivations of project leaders and teachers for establishing diversity within the organisation are:
- so that people within and closely associated with the OU can deal with diversity
- so that the new teacher can make faster adjustments to the guidelines that will be made in manual (recommendations)
- personal growth and development
- student’s satisfaction
Possible benefits for the learners
In addition, the potential benefit of diversity as a motive is a total potentially increased organisational efficiency in innovation, creativity, PR, solving problems and quality of decision- making by being conscious of individual identities.
Learners see us (OU) as an organisation with positive attitude, multicultural perspective and inclusive education with individual approach.
What could by from their point of view “setting the stage” for change?
- increasing lifelong learning opportunities
- wide differences in educational experiences among immigrant adults (educational system, educational thinking, levels of use of technology in education….) and due to the emergence of new educational groups; so that they can nullify the initial diversity and make all participants equal in the beginning (diverse but with the same opportunities)
- socio-cultural context of learner’s lives
- vulnerability in the labour market and difficult job finding, mainly due to lack of knowledge of the Croatian language and culture, low level of education and professional skills as well as insufficient motivation to look for a job
Can you explain “what’s in it for them”?
- opportunity to strengthen the expertise of unemployed persons belonging to marginalised groups through adult education programs; empowerment and development of soft and / or transversal (transferable) skills of unemployed persons belonging to marginalized groups by participating in targeted mentoring programs, workshops and / or services- changes towards improvements in the quality of life for immigrant adults
- changes towards improvements in the quality of life for immigrant adults
- integration into the labour market and ultimately Croatian society thereby reducing the risk of their social exclusion and poverty
Stage of the organisation
|7. intercultural organisation|
|6. intercultural diversity management|
|5. cross-cultural HRM policy|
|4. inflow of migrant workers|
|3. intercultural service management|
|2. service to migrants|
|1. monocultural organization|
Scroll over then names of the stages to get a definition of them
- My organisation has migrants among its clients.
- In my organization an intercultural training has been done aimed at improving sales to migrants.
- My organisation has a policy aimed at improving sales or services to migrants.
- My organisation employs (a) migrant worker(s).
- My organisation has a policy aimed at the influx of migrant workers.
- In my organisation there has been an intercultural training on how to improve intercultural cooperation or leadership.
- My organisation has an intercultural personnel policy.
- In my organisation, intercultural policy is a natural part of diversity policy.
- In my organisation, intercultural policy is a natural part of general quality policy with regard to sales/service provision and personnel.
The management, staff and learners are convinced and have impression that OU is an intercultural organisation. But, if we assume that the process of interculturalisation follow a fixed pattern that comprises seven stages, then OU is in the middle of transition process starting to redefine organisation.
Stage 4: Inflow of migrant workers
A policy is being pursued aimed at increasing the intake of employees with a migration background. For example positive action policy or implementation of intake projects aimed at culture-specific groups. This is mainly about numbers at this stage and there is no supporting personnel policy yet. The organisation is actually in transition and committed to becoming a multicultural organisation. Begins to question the limitations of the monocultural perspective and begins to question the existing and nonexistent norms and who they support.
OU actively engages in visioning, planning and problem solving by including all existing perspectives and cultures with activities directed toward the realization of a multicultural organisation. This will be more visible in the next chapters regarding approaching change at all levels of the organisation and reflecting on the recommendations in the final part of the analysis.
Change and consequences
What is change here actually?
An open step into learning situation which is developing process of different perspectives constantly changing (wide shift in mindset) towards bringing individuals uniqueness together.
What does it mean for the education process?
Change in a term of establishing a climate of acceptance (teaching with a multicultural perspective), promotion of a positive self-concept promoting recognition, understanding and acceptance of cultural diversity and individual uniqueness; with awareness of the need to adapt objectives to actual capacities and needs of learners.
Constantly changing the attitudes of those working with students to realise students’ opportunities for learning and find clear aims and methods (e.g. digitalisation of the educational process) for reaching these.
Inclusive education therefore implies changes in:
- learning, rehearsing, evaluating and modifying changing classroom situations
- promoting the academic, practical, social and emotional learning of all learners
- effective teaching approaches in heterogeneous classes
- role of educators as a facilitator of intercultural understanding and appreciation, as well as a connoisseur of students’ developmental specifics but also of their traits, especially intellectual abilities and sources of motivation that determine their engagement and perseverance in learning
What does it mean for the management?
Change for management means aligning, developing shared decision-making, creating a mutual culture of feedback, fostering autonomy and maintaining a collective learning environment.
Change is about building awareness of the need for change and creating desire among employees. (create awareness of business reasons for change and risk of not changing), followed by the provision of resources (time, etc.)
What does it mean for the staff?
Change for staff is inclusion.
Change is inclusion in the terms of attitudes, beliefs and behaviour of educators/teachers/mentors/ trainers/administrative staff/management who support all students and colleagues, value diversity, possess collaborative competencies and take responsibility for their own lifelong learning.
It is change of state and understanding towards:
- determination and desire for cooperation
- openness in communication
- confidence and optimism
- cohesiveness (encouraging prosocial behaviour)
- recognizing different views
- collaborative teaching and teamwork
- permanent personal professional development
- advances in knowledge
- keeping up with educational trends
- improving competences
What does it mean for the learners?
Change for learners means respectful support, empathy and involvement that encourages them to be more willing to take responsibility for their learning. It means learning by doing, motivation, selfconfidence and positive attitude towards collaborative learning.
What does it means for the organisation?
Change for organisation means horizontally building strength through diversity and inclusion; and accomplishing an organisation-wide shift in mindset.
Professionalism in diversity management can be developed equally across departments by:
- formulating a new/improved mission
- introducing management systems
- setting up workshops
- transferring experience
- upgrading quality system
According to colour thinking (based also on other models) our recommendation is to organise a range of workshops for all employees, including also external teachers and representatives of partner organisations working with migrants to learn from each other and exchange viewpoints, to create more involvement and have a good time together, resulting in a written plan of approach. As content of the workshops we suggest:
- Workshop formulating a new mission in order to:
- enable a useful exchange of views; explore different possibilities together
- getting everyone on the same wavelength; give words to what brings us together/create a family” feeling
- have the best strategy clearly defined -to be used in external marketing or internal monitoring
- Workshop introducing knowledge management by:
- bringing people together in such a way that they learn from one another; intervision and coaching
- introducing job rotation and sabbaticals; management development programs
- writing handbooks; developing information systems; doing research
Recommendations for 3 levels (management, teachers, administration):
- join an intercultural training on how to improve intercultural cooperation or leadership
- make a manual for external teachers and adjust it to all the three levels (intercultural policy, quality policy)
- use questionnaire for self-evaluation on OU platform
- provide employees with the information or skills they need to achieve change
- in socio-cultural context in Croatia the positive discrimination is not necessary but if they will as an organisation intensively work with migrants, they still have to consider its implementation in the organisation
- keep using positive measures to attract people with a migrant background to an institution:
- creating employment opportunities through education
- strengthening the capacity of professionals to improve services related to access to the labour market and social inclusion for unemployed migrants
- migrant direct meetings with employers – OU, as an institution, mediate
- employment, education of migrant groups
- solving negative problems (mentioned in section 3):
- better cooperation with JRS/Red Cross
- guidelines – for new teachers, rules of conduct
- external teacher continuously gives correct recommendations on what should be done and have the autonomy to negotiate intercultural competence with providers
- use diversifying teaching methods
- classification of learners’ language learning strategies involving analysis, elaboration and transformation or synthesis of learning materials, e.g. translation, repetition and involving an attempt to regulate learning through planning, monitoring and evaluating one’s own learning process
- use pedagogical/didactical strategies when engaging in collaborative learning in class · create personalized study plans
- track educational trends- continuously use of new methods/technology
- solving negative problems (mentioned in section 3):
- start from educational point of view: how to reach migrants and how to deal with them in a way that they can successfully join the education activities
What is the right approach for this way of changing?
Speaking general and based on the colour model of De Caluwe & Vermaak30, the greenprint approach (‘learning organisations’) is the right one, in combination with some elements from blueprint (following a rational plan) and redprint (motivating and stimulating) . Organisation develop when people develop. Changing and learning are conceptually closely linked- people are motivated to discover the limits of their competences and to involve themselves in learning situations. They are provided with means for learning more effective ways of acting. The aim is to strengthen the learning abilities of the individual and the learning within the organisation. So, greenprint change is driven by people’s eagerness and ability to learn. Such a change may benefit from facilitation, but this is not meant to lessen the participants’ active stance.
The organisation took one step further- the interviewed persons took the test to reflect on their own thinking about preferences for different approaches to change: the leadership, project-managers, educators/teachers and staff had the greenprint change as the first choice. They all consider that learning is something that happens through interaction with others. Regardless of whether learning happens by way of inquiry, experimentation, exercises, or teaching, meaning is created through conversations. If people learn collectively, the organisation learns and as a result different organisational behaviour results and change is a fact.
Greenprint thinking is concerned with allowing and supporting people to take ownership of their learning. But the change process takes time: it is a fluctuating process of learning and unlearning, trial and error. The change “agents” (people involved in change) play a facilitating role, not a controlling one. They design learning situations, give feedback, support experimenting with new behaviour, structure communication and are learning themselves in the process.
The test result that was interesting and was not expected is the second choice of the interviewed persons. The second choice of project managers and staff was the blueprint, and for leadership and teachers the redprint change/thinking. The results of the second choice were very close to the greenprint change/thinking and it is important to see the contrasts between leadership, managers, educators and staff.
Blueprint thinking is based on the rational design and implementation of change with project management as one its strongest tools. In blueprint thinking, it is assumed that people or things will change if a clearly specified result is laid down beforehand. Controlling the change by managing, planning, and monitoring the progress is considered feasible. The process and the result are deemed, more or less, independent of people. Change is considered to be a rational process aimed at the best possible solution. There is continuous monitoring based on pre-determined indicators to check whether the activities are leading to the desired result as planned. If not, adjustments are made to achieve that which has been agreed upon within the frameworks of time, money, quality, information, and organisation. Change agents are experts on the content of the change effort. They take full responsibility for implementation and monitoring when mandated to do so.
On the other hand, the change in redprint thinking equates with people changing their behaviour. This is accomplished by stimulating people, by making it appealing to adjust behaviour. Redprint thinking strives to develop competencies and making the most of people’s talents. The aim is a good “fit” between what individuals want and what the organisation needs. Red change agents focus on people in change processes, on development of talents and optimal interaction between organisation and staff. They assume that change can be realised when people are stimulated in the right way, for instance by using advanced HRM tools. They intend to change an organisation’s ‘soft’ aspects: management style, personnel structure and competences.
The foremost consideration of the green change agent is: motivate and support people to learn with each other and from each other in order to establish continuous learning in collective settings (bottomup approach to change). The foremost considerations of the blueprint changer are these: Plan and organize first; use all possible expertise and do not let people’s individual ideas and preferences interfere; and never lose sight of the intended result (top-down approach based on underlying beliefs that change happens because of rational analysis, planning, and implementation). Redprint change is in the middle of green and blue, which indicates an effort to somehow combine opposites. The in-between position of redprint change may be perceived as an ambivalent reaction to contrasting worlds. It is less controlled than blue and less inquisitive than green. For type of change leadership this refers to an attempt to reconcile centralized leadership with allowing the people involved some influence. It is an approach in which the direction of the change and its planning are still top-down but implemented with those involved. Thus, the top-down approach is tempered to allow for participation, while trying to still maintain coherence and direction. For type of change relationship redprint indicates an effort to reconcile leadership by a few with the sense of community among the many. It is an approach with a clear division of roles and responsibilities that still tries to get as many people on board as possible. Conclusion is that the right approach for organisation is the green, but organisation must also take into consideration the red and the blue one mentioned characteristics.
Commitment with Management and Staff
It’s obvious to the interviewer, staff and management that the organisations will be better off if they all shifted to an outward mindset. But this would be possible only if some are willing to change even when others don’t—and to sustain the change whether or not others reciprocate. Commitment for change must be horizontal. Horizontal change will help organisation become more adaptable, more collaborative and innovative (more closely to 7 stages model -intercultural organisation) which is vital in today’s highly competitive and ever-evolving adult education; having in mind that personalisation, collaboration and informalisation (informal learning) are at the core of learning in the future.